Almost everyone knows back pain., and 15-20% of them have to deal with this symptom regularly during the year.
The problem is not only medical, but also socio-economic in nature, since during the illness the patient loses his ability to work depending on the causes of the problem.
In most cases, it is possible to get rid of the disease within a month, after which the patient can return to normal life.
Despite these results, pain returns in 70% of patients, and treatment is futile due to incorrect or inadequate therapy.
It should be noted that the paina sign of degenerative processes in the spine, which in turn are considered a sign of pathological conditions.
Classification and nature of back pain
Types of back pain:
- not specific(benign) - dorsopathy, "obsolete" osteochondrosis, the cause is most often dysfunctions of the locomotor system, the additional examination is mostly useless;
- special(dangerous) pain, which requires additional diagnostics already at the first visit, which allows for the diagnosis of spinal fracture, tuberculosis, tumor, metastasis, etc. his presence;
- radicular pain(radiculopathy) - disc herniation (prolapsed) is associated with nerve root irritation/compression.
What musculoskeletal disorders cause pain in the spine in the middle of the back?
Musculoskeletal diseases causing pain:
- osteoarthritis- the patient can bend over from the pain, the straightening of the back, deep inhalation attempts contribute to the increased negative sensations, when the vertebrae are compressed, the load on the flexible shock absorber pad increases, as a result, the damaged element becomes thinner;
- chondrosis, osteochondrosis of the chest region- develops against the background of obesity, lack of exercise, unbalanced nutrition, mineral metabolism disorders, during age-related changes, the flexibility and height of the intervertebral discs decrease, their structure changes, pinching of nerve fibers contributes to sudden, severe pain or moderate discomfort, which is aggravated by movements;
- scoliosis, increased/decreased lordosis, kyphosis- it can lead to deterioration of posture and appearance, which results in pinching of the nerves of the spinal column;
- column injury;
- neurological causes(radiculitis);
- congenital pathologies- extra / missing vertebrae in the spine lead to painful discomfort;
- myositis- a weakening and increasing pain develops against the background of inflammation of the skeletal muscles, the discomfort increases when the back is touched.
Other causes of back pain
- nephritis- the discomfort is often accompanied by high fever, swelling of the lower limbs, and high blood pressure;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system, vascular pathologies - accompanied by throbbing back pain and increased blood pressure;
- chronic stress;
- diseases of the digestive system- the pain is localized in the middle or left side of the back, the pain intensifies after eating against the background of pancreatitis or gastric mucosal diseases;
- psycho-emotional disorder.
Serious diseases of the organs located in the abdominal cavity and below the chest can also react with spinal pain. It is often very difficult for the patient to determine the nature of the pain, it is recommended to monitor the symptoms and inform the doctor in time.
Treatment of pain in the spine
Before starting the treatment, the doctor must make a diagnosis, study the patient's history, listen to complaints, perform a visual examination and palpation, and study the results of laboratory and diagnostic tests. After that, the necessary drugs are selected, which are aimed at solving the problem.
During an exacerbation, the goal of therapy is to stop the pain signal.
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs- their effect is aimed at stopping the mediators of inflammatory processes before they enter the tissues surrounding the spine. It helps to get rid of inflammation, fever, swelling, spasms, and pain. In case of severe pain, injectable preparations are prescribed, which stand out for their quick effect (15-20 minutes), safety for the gastrointestinal tract, and all components are delivered in the initial dose. To eliminate moderate and mild pain, external preparations or oral drugs are prescribed.
- Pain relievers- they are prescribed when the pain-relieving properties of NSAIDs are not enough, the drugs affect the transmission of nerve impulses to the brain, which prevents the response from occurring. The combination of the 2 groups should be done carefully, taking into account the characteristics of the body, the compatibility of the drugs, and the dosage should be selected individually.
- Muscle relaxants- spinal diseases are often accompanied by muscle spasms, which force the patient into one position, every movement leads to sharp pains. The injection of muscle relaxants helps to relax the muscle ligament, the effect of their administration lasts for 12 hours. Pills are used less frequently, as they begin to work only after the necessary amount of substances has accumulated.
- Chondroprotectors- spine problems appear against the background of degenerative processes of joint and cartilage tissue, in such cases, drugs containing chondroitin or glucosamine are prescribed. Materials include tendons, joints, ligaments, etc. form the basis of its restoration. These components are not produced in the body, therefore, in case of illness, the cells must be saturated as much as possible with the listed substances, they are most often prescribed orally. the drugs must be taken in long courses.
As an adjunctive therapyvitamin complexes, diuretics, antispasmodics can be prescribed, as well as funds aimed at improving trophism and restoring blood circulation, antioxidants, antihistamines and others.
In the absence of the effect of drug treatment, surgical treatment is justified, great results can be achieved with modern techniques.In case of osteochondrosis, injuries and hernia, a part of the vertebra or intervertebral disc is removed, with an aortic aneurysm, plastic surgery is indicated.
In the case of spine diseases, the cause of the origin of the pain must be established, the source of the unpleasant symptoms is often the internal organs. Only a doctor can diagnose the disease and prescribe treatment.
Exercise, movement therapy, massage
If the patient's condition and the course of the underlying disease allow, moderate physical activity is required.
Doctors also recommend regular morning exercises, the complex includes the following exercises:
- child pose. Sit on your knees with your head on the floor, stretch your arms forward, stay in this position for 20 seconds, stretch your arms back for 20 seconds, repeat the exercise twice.
- Bending the head.Sit on the floor with your back straight, put your hands behind your head, slowly pull your head forward, tilt until your chin touches your neck, hold for 10-15 seconds, repeat 8-10 times.
- Twist it with a stick. In a standing position, place the gymnastic stick in a horizontal position on the neck behind the head, extend your arms and hold the ends of the stick. With a stick behind your head, slowly turn to the left, hold for 25-30 seconds, repeat in the opposite direction, the number of repetitions 10-12 times.
- Leaning the body forward. With your feet shoulder-width apart and your arms clasped behind the lock, rise up with your body tilted forward, bend your legs slightly at the knees, stay in this position for 15-20 seconds, repeat up to 4-5 times.
- Leaning the body forward, touching the toes. Sitting on the floor, close your legs, place them in front of you, bend forward to reach your toes with your hands. The exercise should be performed without sudden movements, gradually, slowly, hold the position for a few seconds.
During exacerbations, exercise therapy and other types of physical activity are strictly contraindicated.
Manual massage is also effective in case of back pain caused by spinal diseases.. The techniques make it possible to achieve muscle relaxation, during their execution the soft tissues are heated, which helps to improve blood circulation. This type of massage is recommended for patients with pathologies of the respiratory organs, which are accompanied by sputum discharge.
Home treatment or folk remedies
In case of persistent back pain, it is recommended to turn to folk recipes, you must consult a doctor before using them. Despite the apparent safety, many devices are not only useless, but can also be harmful.
Recommended for pain reliefmake a rub. To do this, take a mixture of pure alcohol or cologne, a small amount of hot pepper, catnip tincture, a bottle of 5% iodine solution, thoroughly rub the affected area with the mixture, wrap it. It is recommended to carry out the procedure at night, leaving it warm until morning. It is very important not to start the disease, identify the cause of the pathology in time and follow all the recommendations of the doctors.
The following steps can help alleviate the condition at home:
- avoid prolonged bed rest - physically active patients suffer less pain;
- participate in light sports - moderate physical activity is best;
- maintaining correct posture;
- increases the flexibility of the spine;
- wear corsets and belts for the spine;
- apply heat and cold to the affected area;
- stop smoking - nicotine causes spasm of small blood vessels, which leads to disruption of microcirculation and cessation of oxygen delivery to tissues;
- relaxation exercises.
The patient can independently prevent the development of back diseases, he must learn to sleep, sit and stand correctly, as well as endure heavy loads with minimal self-harm. It is recommended to stand and sit with a straight back, the head should not hang forward, and not to bend and bend the body without leaning on the hands.
If you have to stay on your feet for a long time, find a point to support your head and limbs, you can lean against a cabinet, wall or other surfaces. Walking in heels for more than 2 hours in a row is prohibited, the feet must rest from time to time, for this they must be raised for a few minutes.
- relieve the neck and lower back with special rollers or "bone pillows", avoid sitting on a chair or with a bent back, every 15 minutes. you need to change your posture, stretch and lean back, take a break after every hour of sitting;
- you must sleep on a hard mattress without high pillows, you can place orthopedic rollers under your head;
- certain rules must be followed when carrying loads, loads larger than 3 kg for women and 5 kg for men must not be transported, lifting weights while bending or jerking is dangerous, bags must be lifted with a straight back, heavy loads must be transported in several steps.
- Back pain- a relatively common pathology, with the appearance of a pain syndrome, you should seek medical help.
- The causes of the pathology are very different, the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the patient's history, examination, and complaints.
- During treatmentdrugs are used(primarily pain relievers), massage, exercise therapy are recommended.